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nitrogen

 
   
Symbol N. The element with atomic number 7 and relative atomic mass 14.01, which is at the top of Group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen gas is covalently bonded, N{TAG(tag=>sub)}2{TAG}, and constitutes about 78% of the air, from which it can be extracted by cooling followed by fractional distillation of the liquid air. Liquid nitrogen is the most useful refrigerant, as it is safe and cheap and has a low boiling point of -196 °C. Industrial production of nitrogen is second only to that of sulphuric acid. As importantly, four of nitrogen\'s compounds are also among the top 15 chemicals manufactured in industry: ammonia, urea, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. The use of nitrogenous fertilizers revolutionized agriculture in the 20th century.  

 

 

 
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Other Terms : Van Allen belts (radiation belts) | parallel | ring strain

 

 

 
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