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The coding of an electrical signal f(t) within a carrier c(t), which is usually a wave (e.g. c(t) = sin ωt), to enable it to be transmitted in combination, g(t). In amplitude modulation (AM) the carrier is multiplied by the signal: g(t) = f(t) sin ωt. In frequency modulation (FM) the signal acts on the frequency of the carrier: g(t) = sin[(ω + f(t))t]. In phase modulation the signal acts on the phase of the carrier: g(t) = sin(ωt + f(t)). When the combination reaches its destination (typically after transmission as a radio wave) it is subjected to demodulation to extract the signal.  



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Other Terms : differentiation | magnetic quantum number | steady-state approximation (stationary-state approximation)



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